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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
5th June 2018
Volume 131 | Issue 11
Page Nos. 1261-1386

Online since Monday, May 21, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Overall Blastocyst Quality, Trophectoderm Grade, and Inner Cell Mass Grade Predict Pregnancy Outcome in Euploid Blastocyst Transfer Cycles Highly accessed article p. 1261
Yan-Yu Zhao, Yang Yu, Xiao-Wei Zhang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232808  
Background: Despite recent advances that have improved the pregnancy success rates that can be achieved via in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy, it is not yet clear which blastocyst morphological parameters best predict the outcomes of single blastocyst transfer. In addition, most of the previous studies did not exclude the effect of embryo aneuploidy on blastocysts transfer. Thus, the present study investigated the predictive value of various parameters on the pregnancy outcomes achieved via the transfer of frozen euploid blastocysts. Methods: The study retrospectively analyzed 914 single euploid blastocyst transfer cycles that were performed at the Peking University Third Hospital Reproductive Medical Center between June 2011 and May 2016. The expansion, trophectoderm (TE), and inner cell mass (ICM) quality of the blastocysts were assessed based on blastocyst parameters, and used to differentiate between “excellent”, “good”, “average”, and “poor”-quality embryos. The relationship between these embryo grades and the achieved pregnancy outcomes was then analyzed via the Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Results: For embryo grades of excellent, good, average and poor, the clinical pregnancy rates were 65.0%, 59.3%, 50.3% and 33.3%, respectively; and the live-birth rates were 50.0%, 49.7%, 42.3% and 25.0%, respectively. Both the clinical pregnancy rate (χ2 = 21.28, P = 0.001) and live-birth rate (χ2 = 13.50, P < 0.001) increased with the overall blastocyst grade. Both rates were significantly higher after the transfer of a blastocyst that exhibited either an A-grade or B-grade TE, and similarly, an A-grade ICM, than after the transfer of a blastocyst that exhibited a C-grade TE and/or ICM. The degree of blastocyst expansion had no apparent effect on the clinical pregnancy or live-birth rate. All odds ratio were adjusted for patient age, body mass index, length (years) of infertility history, and infertility type. Conclusions: A higher overall euploid blastocyst quality is shown to correlate most strongly with optimal pregnancy outcomes. The study thus supports the use of the described TE and ICM morphological grades to augment current embryo selection criteria.
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Preliminary Outcome of Individualized Abdominoperineal Excision for Locally Advanced Low Rectal Cancer p. 1268
Yi Zheng, Jia-Gang Han, Zhen-Jun Wang, Zhi-Gang Gao, Guang-Hui Wei, Zhi-Wei Zhai, Bao-Cheng Zhao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232810  
Background: The introduction of individualized abdominoperineal excision (APE) may minimize operative trauma and reduce the rate of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of individualized APE for low rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-six patients who underwent individualized APE from June 2011 to June 2015 were evaluated retrospectively in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University. The main outcome measures were circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, intraoperative perforation, postoperative complications, and local recurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Fifty (89%) patients received preoperative chemoradiotherapy: 51 (91%) patients were treated with the sacrococcyx preserved; 27 (48%) patients with the levator ani muscle partially preserved bilaterally; 20 (36%) patients with the levator ani muscle partially preserved unilaterally and the muscle on the opposite side totally preserved; 7 (13%) patients with intact levator ani muscle and part of the ischioanal fat bilaterally dissected; and 2 (4%) patients with part of the ischioanal fat and intact lavator ani muscle dissected unilaterally and the muscle on the opposite side partially preserved. The most common complications included sexual dysfunction (12%), perineal wound complications (13%), urinary retention (7%), and chronic perineal pain (5%). A positive CRM was demonstrated in 3 (5%) patients, and intraoperative perforations occurred in 2 (4%) patients. On multiple logistic regression analysis, longer operative time (P = 0.032) and more intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.006) were significantly associated with perineal procedure-related complications. The local recurrence was 4% at a median follow-up of 53 months (range: 30–74 months). Conclusion: With preoperative chemoradiotherapy, individualized APE may be a relatively safe and feasible approach for low rectal cancer with acceptable oncological outcomes.
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A Predictive Model for Estimation Risk of Proliferative Lupus Nephritis p. 1275
Dong-Ni Chen, Li Fan, Yu-Xi Wu, Qian Zhou, Wei Chen, Xue-Qing Yu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232809  
Background: Lupus nephritis (LN) is classified by renal biopsy into proliferative and nonproliferative forms, with distinct prognoses, but renal biopsy is not available for every LN patient. The present study aimed to establish an alternate tool by building a predictive model to evaluate the probability of proliferative LN. Methods: In this retrospective cohort with biopsy-proven LN, 382 patients in development cohort, 193 in internal validation cohort, and 164 newly diagnosed patients in external validation cohort were selected. Logistic regression model was established, and the concordance statistics (C-statistics), Akaike information criterion (AIC), integrated discrimination improvement, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and net reclassification improvement were calculated to evaluate the performance and validation of models. Results: The prevalence of proliferative LN was 77.7% in the whole cohort. A model, including age, gender, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, proteinuria, hematuria, and serum C3, performed well on good-of-fit and discrimination in the development chohort to predict the risk of proliferative LN (291 for AIC and 0.84 for C-statistics). In the internal and external validation cohorts, this model showed good capability for discrimination and calibration (0.84 and 0.82 for C-statistics, and 0.99 and 0.75 for P values, respectively). Conclusion: This study developed and validated a model including demographic and clinical indices to evaluate the probability of presenting proliferative LN to guide therapeutic decisions and outcomes.
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Role of Soluble ST2 Levels and Beta-Blockers Dosage on Cardiovascular Events of Patients with Unselected ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction p. 1282
Wei-Ping Huang, Xuan Zheng, Lei He, Xi Su, Cheng-Wei Liu, Ming-Xiang Wu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232819  
Background: Serum soluble ST2 (sST2) levels are elevated early after acute myocardial infarction and are related to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Beta-blockers (BB) have been shown to improve LV remodeling and survival. However, the relationship between sST2, final therapeutic BB dose, and cardiovascular outcomes in STEMI patients remains unknown. Methods: A total of 186 STEMI patients were enrolled at the Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital between January 2015 and June 2015. All patients received standard treatment and were followed up for 1 year. Serum sST2 was measured at baseline. Patients were divided into four groups according to their baseline sST2 values (high >56 ng/ml vs. low ≤56 ng/ml) and final therapeutic BB dose (high ≥47.5 mg/d vs. low <47.5 mg/d). Cox regression analyses were performed to determine whether sST2 and BB were independent risk factors for cardiovascular events in STEMI. Results: Baseline sST2 levels were positively correlated with heart rate (r = 0.327, P = 0.002), Killip class (r = 0.408, P = 0.000), lg N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (r = 0.467, P = 0.000), lg troponin I (r = 0.331, P = 0.000), and lg C-reactive protein (r = 0.307, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated to systolic blood pressure (r = −0.243, P = 0.009) and LV ejection fraction (r = −0.402, P = 0.000). Patients with higher baseline sST2 concentrations who were not titrated to high-dose BB therapy (P < 0.0001) had worse outcomes. Baseline high sST2 (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.653; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.201–8.929; P = 0.041) and final low BB dosage (HR: 1.904; 95% CI, 1.084–3.053; P = 0.035) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events in STEMI. Conclusions: High baseline sST2 levels and final low BB dosage predicted cardiovascular events in STEMI. Hence, sST2 may be a useful biomarker in cardiac pathophysiology.
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Human Leukocyte Antigen-A Allele Distribution in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Showing Anti-Melanoma-Associated Antigen A or Synovial Sarcoma X-2 T Cell Response in Blood p. 1289
Pei-Wen Fan, Li Huang, Xue-Mei Chang, Ya-Ning Feng, Xuan Yao, Yan-Chun Peng, Tao Dong, Ruo-Zheng Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232791  
Background: Development of innovative immunotherapy is imperative to improve the poor survival of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. In this study, we evaluated the T cell response to melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE)-A1, MAGE-A3, or synovial sarcoma X-2 (SSX-2) in the peripheral blood of treatment-naive NPC patients. The relationship of responses among the three proteins and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A types were analyzed to provide evidence of designing novel therapy. Methods: Sixty-one NPC patients admitted into the Tumor Hospital affiliated to the Xinjiang Medical University between March 2015 and July 2016 were enrolled. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood before any treatment. HLA-A alleles were typed with Sanger sequence-based typing technique. The T cell response to the MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, or SSX-2 was evaluated with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot assay. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the T cell responses from different groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to analyze the relationship of T cell responses. Results: HLA-A*02:01, A*02:07, and A*24:02 were the three most frequent alleles (18.9%, 12.3%, and 11.5%, respectively) among the 22 detected alleles. 31.1%, 19.7%, and 16.4% of the patients displayed MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, or SSX-2-specific T cell response, respectively. The magnitudes of response to the three proteins were 32.5, 38.0, and 28.7 SFC/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The T cell response against the three proteins correlated with each other to different extent. The percentage of A*02:01 and A*24:02 carriers were significantly higher in patients responding to any of the three proteins compared to the nonresponders. Conclusion: MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, or SSX-2-specific T cell responses were detectable in a subgroup of NPC patients, the frequency and magnitude of which were correlated.
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Fixation versus Excision of Osteochondral Fractures after Patellar Dislocations in Adolescent Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study p. 1296
Hui Kang, Jian Li, Xu-Xu Chen, Tao Wang, Shi-Chang Liu, Hong-Chuan Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232800  
Background: Patellar dislocation is one of the most common knee injuries in the adolescent population. It is often combined with osteochondral fracture. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes between fixation and excision of osteochondral fractures not involving the bearing surface in adolescent patients with patellar dislocations. Methods: Patients who underwent surgery for osteochondral fracture following patellar dislocation in our institution from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Visual analog scale (VAS) of pain and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form were used to assess knee pain and function at follow-up. Patient satisfaction was evaluated. Differences in the values of variables among groups were assessed using t-test if equal variance or Mann–Whitney U-test if not equal variance. The Pearson's Chi-square test was applied for dichotomous variables if expected frequency was >5 or Fisher's exact test was applied if not. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Forty-three patients were included, with the average age of 14.1 ± 2.3 (range, 9.0–17.0) years. Nineteen underwent fixation of osteochondral fractures and 24 did not. The average follow-up time was 28 ± 10 months. There was no significant difference in age, gender, follow-up time, causes of injury, times of dislocation, and location of osteochondral fracture between fixation and excision groups. The fixation group had a significantly longer surgery time (82 ± 14 min) and larger size of osteochondral fracture (2.30 ± 0.70 cm2) than the excision group (43 ± 10 min, 1.88 ± 0.62 cm2, respectively, t = 10.77, P < 0.01 and t = 0.84, P < 0.05). At the last follow-up, the average IKDC score in the fixation group (82.52 ± 8.71) was significantly lower than that in the excision group (89.51 ± 7.19, t = 2.65, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in VAS of pain and patients' satisfaction. There were 7 (16%) patients with recurrent dislocation. Conclusion: Excision of osteochondral fractures has equivalent or better outcomes compared to fixation in adolescent patients with patellar dislocations when these fractures do not involve the bearing surface.
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Early Immunosuppressive Exposure of Enteric-Coated-Mycophenolate Sodium Plus Tacrolimus Associated with Acute Rejection in Expanded Criteria Donor Kidney Transplantation p. 1302
Chen-Guang Ding, Li-Zi Jiao, Feng Han, He-Li Xiang, Pu-Xun Tian, Xiao-Ming Ding, Xiao-Ming Pan, Xiao-Hui Tian, Yang Li, Jin Zheng, Wu-Jun Xue
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232797  
Background: Immunosuppressive agents are still inefficient in preventing biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) after expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between early immunosuppressive exposure and the development of BPAR. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 58 recipients of ECD kidney transplantation treated with enteric-coated-mycophenolate sodium, tacrolimus (Tac), and prednisone. The levels of mycophenolic acid-area under the curve (MPA-AUC)0-12h and Tac C0were measured at the 1st week and the 1st month posttransplant, respectively. The correlation was assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The occurrence rates of BPAR and antibody-mediated rejection were 24.1% and 10.3%, respectively. A low level of MPA-AUC0-12h at the 1st week posttransplant was found in BPAR recipients (38.42 ± 8.37 vs. 50.64 ± 13.22, P < 0.01). In addition, the incidence of BPAR was significantly high (P < 0.05) when the MPA-AUC0-12hlevel was <30 mg·h-1·L-1 at the 1st week (15.0% vs. 44.4%) or the Tac C0was <4 ng/ml at the 1st month posttransplant (33.3% vs. 21.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the MPA-AUC0-12h at the 1st week (OR: 0.842, 95% CI: 0.784-0.903) and the Tac C0at the 1st month (OR: 0.904, 95% CI: 0.822–0.986) had significant inverse correlation with BPAR (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Low-level exposure of MPA and Tac C0in the early weeks posttransplant reflects an increased acute rejection risk, which suggested that MPA-AUC0-12h <30 mg·h-1·L-1 and Tac C0 <4 ng/ml should be avoided in the first few weeks after transplantation.
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Risk Factors for Recurrence of Ovarian Endometriosis in Chinese Patients Aged 45 and Over p. 1308
Zheng-Xing He, Ting-Ting Sun, Shu Wang, Hong-Hui Shi, Qing-Bo Fan, Lan Zhu, Jin-Hua Leng, Da-Wei Sun, Jian Sun, Jing-He Lang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232790  
Background: When considering the issue of recurrence, perimenopausal women may have more dilemma during management comparing with young women, for example, whether to retain the uterus and ovary during surgery, whether it is necessary to add adjuvant medicine treatment after operation, and there is no evidence for reference about using of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. This study aimed to study the risk factors for the recurrence of ovarian endometriosis (EM) in patients aged 45 and over. Methods: This is a retrospective nested case-control study. We reviewed the medical records of patients aged over 45 years who underwent surgical treatments for ovarian EM from 1994 to 2014, in Peking Union Medical College Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. By following up to January 2016, 45 patients were found to have relapses and regarded as the recurrence group. The patients with no recurrence during the same follow-up period were randomly selected by the ratio of 1:4 as the nonrecurrence group (180 patients in total). Stratified Cox regression was used to analyze the risk factors of the recurrence. Results: Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the postoperative treatment (the percentage of patients who received postoperative treatment in non-recurrence group and recurrence group, 23.9% vs. 40.0%, χ2 = 4.729, P = 0.030) and ovarian preservation (the percentage of patients who received surgery of ovarian preservation in non-recurrence group and recurrence group, 25.0 % vs. 44.4%, χ2 = 19.462, P < 0.001) between the nonrecurrence group and the recurrence group. There was no correlation between recurrence and the following factors including patient's age, menarche age, gravidity, parity, CA125 level, ovarian lesions, menopausal status, combined benign gynecological conditions (such as myoma and adenomyoma) and endometrial abnormalities, and surgical approach or surgical staging (all P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that whether to retain the ovary was the only independent risk factor of recurrence for patients aged 45 years and over with ovarian EM (odds ratio: 5.594, 95% confidence interval: 1.919–16.310, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Ovarian preservation might be the only independent risk factor of recurrence for patients aged 45 years and over with ovarian EM.
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Prognostic Value of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Incorporating with Serum Sodium Score for Development of Acute Kidney Injury after Liver Transplantation p. 1314
Yuan Cheng, Guo-Qing Wei, Qiu-Cheng Cai, Yi Jiang, Ai-Ping Wu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232798  
Background: Contribution of model for end-stage liver disease incorporating with serum sodium (MELD-Na) score in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is yet to be identified. This study assessed the prognostic value of MELD-Na score for the development of AKI following OLT. Methods: Preoperative and surgery-related variables of 321 adult end-stage liver disease patients who underwent OLT in Fuzhou General Hospital were collected. Postoperative AKI was defined and staged in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines developed by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for AKI following OLT. The discriminating power of MELD/MELD-Na score on AKI outcome was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Spearman's correlation analysis was used for identifying the correlated relationship between MELD/MELD-Na score and the severity levels of AKI. Results: The prevalence of AKI following OLT was in 206 out of 321 patients (64.2%). Three risk factors for AKI post-OLT were presented, preoperative calculated MELD score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.048, P = 0.021), intraoperative volume of red cell suspension transfusion (OR = 1.001, P = 0.002), and preoperative liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.015, P = 0.012). Two areas under ROC curve (AUCs) of MELD/MELD-Na score predicting AKI were 0.688 and 0.672, respectively; the difference between two AUCs was not significant (Z = 1.952, P = 0.051). The Spearman's correlation coefficients between MELD/MELD-Na score and the severity levels of AKI were 0.406 and 0.385 (P = 0.001, 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that preoperative MELD score, intraoperative volume of red cell suspension transfusion and preoperative liver cirrhosis were risk factors for AKI following OLT. Furthermore, we preliminarily validated that MELD score seemed to have a stronger power discriminating AKI post-OLT than that of novel MELD-Na score.
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CORRIGENDUM Top

Corrigendum: Association of Source of Memory Complaints and Increased Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Cognitive Decline: A Community-Based Study p. 1320

DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232799  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of Double-Balloon Enteroscopy on Diagnosis and Treatment of Small-Bowel Diseases p. 1321
Li Tang, Liu-Ye Huang, Jun Cui, Cheng-Rong Wu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232802  
Background: The diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel diseases is clinically difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic value of double-balloon enteroscopy in small-bowel diseases. Methods: The history and outcomes of 2806 patients who underwent double-balloon enteroscopy from July 2004 to April 2017 were reviewed, which included 562 patients with obscure digestive tract bleeding, 457 patients with obscure diarrhea, 930 patients with obscure abdominal pain, 795 patients with obscure weight loss, and 62 patients with obscure intestinal obstruction. Examinations were performed through the mouth and/or anus according to the clinical symptoms and abdominal images. If a lesion was not detected through one direction, examination through the other direction was performed as necessary. Eighty-four patients with small-bowel polyps, 26 with intestinal obstruction caused by enterolith, and 18 with bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesions in the small intestine were treated endoscopically. Results: A total of 2806 patients underwent double-balloon enteroscopy, and no serious complications occurred. An endoscopic approach through both the mouth and anus was used in 212 patients. Lesions were detected in 1696 patients, with a detection rate of 60.4%; the rates for obscure digestive tract bleeding, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and intestinal obstruction were 85.9% (483/562), 73.5% (336/457), 48.2% (448/930), 49.1% (390/795), and 62.9% (39/62), respectively. For patients with small-bowel polyps who underwent endoscopic therapy, no complications such as digestive tract bleeding and perforation occurred. Intestinal obstruction with enteroliths was relieved with endoscopic lithotripsy. Among the 18 patients with bleeding from small-bowel Dieulafoy's lesions, 14 patients were controlled with endoscopic hemostasis. Conclusion: Double-balloon enteroscopy is useful for diagnosing and treating some small-bowel disease.
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Establishment of a Quantitative Medical Technology Evaluation System and Indicators within Medical Institutions p. 1327
Suo-Wei Wu, Tong Chen, Qi Pan, Liang-Yu Wei, Qin Wang, Chao Li, Jing-Chen Song, Ji Luo
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232804  
Background: The development and application of medical technologies reflect the medical quality and clinical capacity of a hospital. It is also an effective approach in upgrading medical service and core competitiveness among medical institutions. This study aimed to build a quantitative medical technology evaluation system through questionnaire survey within medical institutions to perform an assessment to medical technologies more objectively and accurately, and promote the management of medical quality technologies and ensure the medical safety of various operations among the hospitals. Methods: A two-leveled quantitative medical technology evaluation system was built through a two-round questionnaire survey of chosen experts. The Delphi method was applied in identifying the structure of evaluation system and indicators. The judgment of the experts on the indicators was adopted in building the matrix so that the weight coefficient and maximum eigenvalue (λ max), consistency index (CI), and random consistency ratio (CR) could be obtained and collected. The results were verified through consistency tests, and the index weight coefficient of each indicator was conducted and calculated through analytical hierarchy process. Results: Twenty-six experts of different medical fields were involved in the questionnaire survey, 25 of whom successfully responded to the two-round research. Altogether, 4 primary indicators (safety, effectiveness, innovativeness, and benefits), as well as 13 secondary indicators, were included in the evaluation system. The matrix is built to conduct the λ max, CI, and CR of each expert in the survey, and the index weight coefficients of primary indicators were 0.33, 0.28, 0.27, and 0.12, respectively, and the index weight coefficients of secondary indicators were conducted and calculated accordingly. Conclusions: As the two-round questionnaire survey of experts and statistical analysis were performed and credibility of the results was verified through consistency evaluation test, the study established a quantitative medical technology evaluation system model and assessment indicators within medical institutions based on the Delphi method and analytical hierarchy process. Moreover, further verifications, adjustments, and optimizations of the system and indicators will be performed in follow-up studies.
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Cardiac Hypertrophy is Positively Regulated by MicroRNA-24 in RatsmicroRNA-24 p. 1333
Juan Gao, Min Zhu, Rui-Feng Liu, Jian-Shu Zhang, Ming Xu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232793  
Background: MicroRNA-24 (miR-24) plays an important role in heart failure by reducing the efficiency of myocardial excitation-contraction coupling. Prolonged cardiac hypertrophy may lead to heart failure, but little is known about the role of miR-24 in cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the function of miR-24 and its mechanisms in cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats with a body weight of 50 ± 5 g were recruited and randomly divided into two groups: a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) group and a sham surgery group. Hypertrophy index was measured and calculated by echocardiography and hematoxylin and eosin staining. TargetScans algorithm-based prediction was used to search for the targets of miR-24, which was subsequently confirmed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction and luciferase assay. Immunofluorescence labeling was used to measure the cell surface area, and 3H-leucine incorporation was used to detect the synthesis of total protein in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) with the overexpression of miR-24. In addition, flow cytometry was performed to observe the alteration in the cell cycle. Statistical analysis was carried out with GraphPad Prism v5.0 and SPSS 19.0. A two-sided P < 0.05 was considered as the threshold for significance. Results: The expression of miR-24 was abnormally increased in TAC rat cardiac tissue (t = −2.938, P < 0.05). TargetScans algorithm-based prediction demonstrated that CDKN1B (p27, Kip1), a cell cycle regulator, was a putative target of miR-24, and was confirmed by luciferase assay. The expression of p27 was decreased in TAC rat cardiac tissue (t = 2.896, P < 0.05). The overexpression of miR-24 in NRCMs led to the decreased expression of p27 (t = 4.400, P < 0.01), and decreased G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conclusion: MiR-24 promotes cardiac hypertrophy partly by affecting the cell cycle through down-regulation of p27 expression.
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Lipoxin A4 Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced A549 Cell Injury through Upregulation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene-1 p. 1342
Jun-Zhi Zhang, Zhan-Li Liu, Yao-Xian Zhang, Hai-Jiu Lin, Zhong-Jun Zhang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232788  
Background: Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) can alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome through promoting epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression in lung epithelial cells. However, how LXA4 promote ENaC expression is still largely elusive. The present study aimed to explore genes and signaling pathway involved in regulating ENaC expression induced by LXA4. Methods: A549 cells were incubated with LPS and LXA4, or in combination, and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of ENaC-α/γ. Candidate genes affected by LXA4 were explored by transcriptome sequencing of A549 cells. The critical candidate gene was validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis of A549 cells treated with LPS and LXA4 at different concentrations and time intervals. LXA4 receptor (ALX) inhibitor BOC-2 was used to test induction of candidate gene by LXA4. Candidate gene siRNA was adopted to analyze its influence on A549 viability and ENaC-α expression. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 was utilized to probe whether the PI3K signaling pathway was involved in LXA4 induction of candidate gene expression. Results: The A549 cell models of ALI were constructed and subjected to transcriptome sequencing. Among candidate genes, N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) was validated by real-time-PCR and Western blot. NDRG1 mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner of LXA4, whereas BOC-2 antagonized NDRG1 expression induced by LXA4. NDRG1 siRNA suppressed viability of LPS-treated A549 cells (treatment vs. control, 0.605 ± 0.063 vs. 0.878 ± 0.083, P = 0.040) and ENaC-α expression (treatment vs. control, 0.458 ± 0.038 vs. 0.711 ± 0.035, P = 0.008). LY294002 inhibited NDRG1 (treatment vs. control, 0.459 ± 0.023 vs. 0.726 ± 0.020, P = 0.001) and ENaC-α (treatment vs. control, 0.236 ± 0.021 vs. 0.814 ± 0.025, P < 0.001) expressions and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 phosphorylation (treatment vs. control, 0.442 ± 0.024 vs. 1.046 ± 0.082, P = 0.002), indicating the PI3K signaling pathway was involved in regulating NDRG1 expression induced by LXA4. Conclusion: Our research uncovered a critical role of NDRG1 in LXA4 alleviation of LPS-induced A549 cell injury through mediating PI3K signaling to restore ENaC expression.
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META ANALYSIS Top

Diagnostic Performance of Intestinal Fusobacterium nucleatum in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis p. 1349
Bo-Jian Peng, Chuang-Yu Cao, Wei Li, Yong-Jian Zhou, Yuan Zhang, Yu-Qiang Nie, Yan-Wen Cao, Yu-Yuan Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232814  
Background: Increasing evidence has supported the link of intestinal Fusobacterium nucleatum infection to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the value of F. nucleatum as a biomarker in CRC detection has not been fully defined. In order to reduce the random error and bias of individual research, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of intestinal F. nucleatum in CRC patients and provide evidence-based data to clinical practice. Methods: An article search was performed from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases up to December 2017, using the following key words: “Fusobacterium nucleatum”, ”Fusobacterium spp.”, ”Fn”, “colorectal cancer(s)”, “colorectal carcinoma(s)”, “colorectal neoplasm(s)”, and “colorectal tumor(s)”. Articles on relationships between F. nucleatum and CRC were selected according to the preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. This meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software, which included mapping of forest plots, heterogeneity tests, meta-regression, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of each eligible study were summarized. Results: Finally, data for 1198 participants (629 CRC and 569 healthy controls) in 10 controlled studies from seven articles were included. The summary receiver operator characteristic curve was mapped. The diagnostic performance of intestinal F. nucleatum infection on CRC was as follows: the area under the curve: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83–0.89), the pooled sensitivity: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.64–0.91), specificity: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59–0.89), and DOR: 14.00 (95% CI: 9.00–22.00). Conclusion: Intestinal F. nucleatum is a valuable marker for CRC diagnosis.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Urinary Extracellular Vesicle: A Potential Source of Early Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarker in Diabetic Kidney Disease p. 1357
Wei-Cheng Xu, Ge Qian, Ai-Qun Liu, Yong-Qiang Li, He-Qun Zou
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232801  
Objective: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has become one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease. Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) contain rich biological information which could be the ideal source for noninvasive biomarkers of DKD. This review discussed the potential early diagnostic and therapeutic values of proteins and microRNAs in uEVs in DKD. Data Sources: This review was based articles published in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases up to November 20, 2017, with the following keywords: “Diabetic kidney disease”, “Extracellular vesicle”, and “Urine”. Study Selection: Relevant articles were carefully reviewed, with no exclusions applied to the study design and publication type. Results: There is no “gold standard” technology to separate and/or purify uEVs. The uEVs contain a variety of proteins and RNAs and participate in the physiological and pathological processes of the kidney. UEVs, especially urinary exosomes, may be useful biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment to DKD. Furthermore, the uEVs has been used as a therapeutic target for DKD. Conclusion: Proteins and nucleic acids in uEVs represent promising biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of DKD.
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

Function of Rho GTPase Activating Protein 11A in Tumors p. 1365
Hui-Nian Zhou, Yan-Xian Ren, Long Li, Ke-Shen Wang, Zuo-Yi Jiao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232795  
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Pancreaticojejunal Bridge Stent Internal Drainage as a Safe Reconstruction Technique after Middle Segmental Pancreatic Resection p. 1367
Da-Xin Sun, Feng Gao, Jing-Shuang Song, Na Liu, Fan-Fu Zhu, Yong Du, Xian-Min Bu, Xiao-Dong Tan, Xian-Wei Dai
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232806  
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Molecular Investigation of an Anthrax Epidemic in Guizhou Province, China p. 1369
Shi-Jun Li, Qing Ma, Ying Liu, Guang-Hai Yao, Guang-Peng Tang, Ding-Ming Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232805  
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Successful Ablation of Moderator Band-Originated Ventricular Tachycardia at Its Ventricle Insertion Sites p. 1371
Yuan-Qing Li, Yu-Xi Wang, Dong-Dong Que, Jing Shao, Xu-Dong Song, Ping-Zhen Yang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232807  
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Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein Secondary to Cholecystolithiasis p. 1373
Ya-Feng Wan, Yue Zhou, Chao He, Zhong Jia
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232803  
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Pulmonary Hypertension in Glycogen Storage Disease Type II p. 1375
Hui-Ping Li, Wan-Mu Xie, Xu Huang, Xin Lu, Zhen-Guo Zhai, Qing-Yuan Zhan, Chen Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232792  
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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: An Important Differential Diagnosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease p. 1377
Rogerio Saad-Hossne, Carina De Fatima De Sibia, Julio Pinheiro Baima, Ligia Yukie Sassaki
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232794  
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Recurrent Cardiac Tamponade from Right Atrial Angiosarcoma p. 1379
Na-Qiong Wu, Edmundo Patricio Lopes Lao, U Po Lam, Yuk Ching Yip, Mario Evora
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232796  
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Super-Flexible Through-the-Scope Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion for the Management of Malignant Tortuous Hepatic or Splenic Flexure Colonic Obstruction p. 1381
Kai Yang, Yue-Qi Zhu, Ni-Wei Chen, Zhi-Gang Wang, Ying-Sheng Cheng
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232811  
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Leprosy in Children: Needs for Active Intervention p. 1385
Pugazhenthan Thangaraju, Sajitha Venkatesan
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232812  
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AUTHORíS REPLY Top

Reply to the Comments from Readers p. 1385
Min Wang, Hui-Jun Zhu, Qing-Wei Geng, Ya-Li Gao, Xiu-Zu Song
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.232813  
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