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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
5th June 2017
Volume 130 | Issue 11
Page Nos. 1261-1386

Online since Wednesday, May 17, 2017

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Prevalence of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Chinese Adults: A Cross-sectional Survey Highly accessed article p. 1261
Feng-De Tian, De-Wei Zhao, Wei Wang, Lin Guo, Si-Miao Tian, Ao Feng, Fan Yang, Dong-Yi Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206357  PMID:28524823
Background: The prevalence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown in China. We aimed to determine the prevalence of DDH in Chinese adults. Methods: In this study, we performed a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of Chinese adults. All participants underwent questionnaire investigation, physical examination, and X-ray examination. Factors associated with DDH were analyzed with logistic regression. Results: We invited 29,180 individuals aged 18 years and over to participate, randomly selected from 18 primary sampling units (street districts in urban areas and townships in rural areas). The survey and examination were completed in 25,767 people (10,296 men and 15,471 women). DDH was diagnosed in 391 people, yielding an overall DDH prevalence of 1.52%. Based on this information, we estimate the number of individuals with DDH in China to be approximately 16.05 million. DDH prevalence increased with age (odds ratio = 1.53 [1.03–2.27], P = 0.036), was significantly higher among women than men (2.07% vs. 0.75%, P< 0.001), and was higher among rural residents than urban residents (1.75% vs. 1.29%, P< 0.001). Economic development was independently associated with the presence of DDH. There was no evidence of an association between body mass index alone, education, or current smoking or drinking and risk of DDH (P > 0.05). Conclusions: DDH has become an important public health problem. Special attention should be paid to residents with DDH. Screening for DDH should be performed in China.
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Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome in an Asymptomatic Patient Population: A Prospective Study Highly accessed article p. 1269
Long Cheng, Hui Zhao, Fu-Xian Zhang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206341  PMID:28524824
Background: Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is an important cause of deep vein thrombosis, but the incidence of IVCS is still unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of IVCS in an asymptomatic patient population and to evaluate the risk factors in patients with and without IVCS. Methods: From October 2011 to November 2012, a total of 500 patients (228 women and 272 men; mean age of 55.4 ± 14.7 years) with no vascular-related symptoms were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography was performed to evaluate all patients. The degree of venous compression was calculated as the diameter of the common iliac vein at the site of maximal compression divided by the mean diameter of the uncompressed proximal and caudal left common iliac vein (LCIV). We compared the stenosis rate of the common iliac vein in women and men according to age and followed up patients to evaluate outcomes. Results: The mean compression degree of the LCIV was 16% (4%, 36%); 37.8% of patients had a compression degree ≥25% and 9.8% had a compression degree ≥50%. There was a significant difference between men and women in the LCIV compression degree (9% [3%, 30%] vs. 24% [8%, 42%]; U = 4.66, P< 0.01). In addition, the LCIV compression degree among younger women (≤40 years) was significantly different compared with that in older women (>40 years) (42% [31%, 50%] vs. 19% [5%, 39%]; U = 5.14, P< 0.001). Follow-up was completed in 367 patients with a mean follow-up of 39.5 months (range, 6–56 months). The incidence of IVCS in the follow-up period was 1.6%. Stenosis rate and the diameter of the site of maximal compression correlated with the incidence of IVCS. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that the stenosis rate was an independent risk factor of IVCS (Wald χ2 = 8.84, hazard ratio = 1.13, P< 0.001). Conclusions: The incidence of IVCS was low and correlated with the stenosis rate of iliac vein. Preventative therapy may be warranted for common iliac vein compression in patients at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, especially patients with a higher iliac vein compression degree.
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Chinese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treatment and Research Group Registry IX: Clinical Features and Survival of Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in China Highly accessed article p. 1276
Chan-Yuan Wu, Cai-Feng Li, Qing-Jun Wu, Jian-Hua Xu, Lin-Di Jiang, Lu Gong, Feng-Qi Wu, Jie-Ruo Gu, Jiu-Liang Zhao, Meng-Tao Li, Yan Zhao, Xiao-Feng Zeng, CSTAR Co-authors
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206346  PMID:28524825
Background: Approximately 15–20% cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are diagnosed in children. There have been a few studies reporting the epidemiological data of pediatric-onset SLE (cSLE) in China, neither comparing the differences between cSLE and adult-onset SLE (aSLE). The aim of this study was to describe the impact of age of onset on clinical features and survival in cSLE patients in China based on the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database. Methods: We made a prospective study of 225 cSLE patients (aged <16 years) and 1759 patients aged 16–50 years based on CSTAR registry. We analyzed initial symptoms, clinical presentations, SLE disease activity, damages, and outcomes of cSLE, as well as compared with aSLE patients. Results: The mean age of cSLE patients was 12.16 ± 2.92 years, with 187 (83.1%) females. Fever (P < 0.001) as well as mucocutaneous (P < 0.001) and renal (P = 0.006) disorders were found to be significantly more frequent in cSLE patients as initial symptoms, while muscle and joint lesions were significantly less common compared to aSLE subjects (P < 0.001). The cSLE patients were found to present more frequently with malar rash (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.624; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.470–0.829) but less frequently with arthritis (P < 0.001; OR, 2.013; 95% CI, 1.512–2.679) and serositis (P = 0.030; OR, 1.629; 95% CI, 1.053–2.520). There was no significant difference in SLE disease activity index scores between cSLE and aSLE groups (P = 0.478). Cox regression indicated that childhood onset was the risk factor for organ damage in lupus patients (hazard ratio 0.335 [0.170–0.658], P = 0.001). The survival curves between the cSLE and aSLE groups had no significant difference as determined by the log-rank test (0.557, P = 0.455). Conclusions: cSLE in China has different clinical features and more inflammation than aSLE patients. Damage may be less in children and there is no difference in 5- year survival between cSLE and aSLE groups.
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Prognostic Analysis of 102 Patients with Synchronous Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases Treated with Simultaneous Resection p. 1283
Ye-Fan Zhang, Rui Mao, Xiao Chen, Jian-Jun Zhao, Xin-Yu Bi, Zhi-Yu Li, Jian-Guo Zhou, Hong Zhao, Zhen Huang, Yong-Kun Sun, Jian-Qiang Cai
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206349  PMID:28524826
Background: The liver is the most common site for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. Their removal is a critical and challenging aspect of CRC treatment. We investigated the prognosis and risk factors of patients with CRC and liver metastases (CRCLM) who underwent simultaneous resections for both lesions. Methods: From January 2009 to August 2016, 102 patients with CRCLM received simultaneous resections of CRCLM at our hospital. We retrospectively analyzed their clinical data and analyzed their outcomes. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were examined by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods. Results: Median follow-up time was 22.7 months; no perioperative death or serious complications were observed. Median OS was 55.5 months; postoperative OS rates were 1-year: 93.8%, 3-year: 60.7%, and 5-year: 46.4%. Median DFS was 9.0 months; postoperative DFS rates were 1-year: 43.1%, 3-year: 23.0%, and 5-year 21.1%. Independent risk factors found in multivariate analysis included carcinoembryonic antigen ≥100 ng/ml, no adjuvant chemotherapy, tumor thrombus in liver metastases, and bilobar liver metastases for OS; age ≥60 years, no adjuvant chemotherapy, multiple metastases, and largest diameter ≥3 cm for DFS. Conclusions: Simultaneous surgical resection is a safe and effective treatment for patients with synchronous CRCLM. The main prognostic factors are pathological characteristics of liver metastases and whether standard adjuvant chemotherapy is performed.
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Impact of Human Leukocyte Antigen Loci and Haplotypes on Intestinal Acute Graft-versus-host Disease after Human Leukocyte Antigen-matched Sibling Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation p. 1290
Fa-Hong Yan, Mei Wang, Jian-Feng Yao, Er-Lie Jiang, Ming-Zhe Han
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206356  PMID:28524827
Background: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a common and severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Some studies have found that the presence of certain specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci could affect the occurrence of aGVHD. Meanwhile, the impact of HLA haplotypes on aGVHD has been rarely studied. This study aimed to investigate the effects of HLA loci and haplotypes on intestinal aGVHD. Methods: Totally, 345 consecutive patients undergoing first HLA-matched sibling peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from February 2004 to June 2013 at Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, were enrolled in this study. HLA loci and haplotypes of recipients with frequency over 5% were searched and their effects on intestinal aGVHD were investigated. Other important factors including donor age, recipient age, donor-recipient sex combinations, and conditioning regimens were also evaluated using logistic regression. Pure upper gastrointestinal tract aGVHD without diarrhea was excluded because the histological proof was unavailable. The follow-up end-point was 6 months after HSCT. Results: The cumulative incidence of intestinal aGVHD was 19.4%, with 18.0% of the patients classified as classic aGVHD and 1.4% as persistent, recurrent, or late aGVHD. Multivariate analysis showed that HLA-A31 locus (odds ratio [OR] 2.893, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.054, 7.935], P = 0.039), HLA B40-DR15 (OR 3.133, 95% CI [1.250, 7.857], P = 0.015), and HLA B46-DR9 haplotypes (OR 2.580, 95% CI [1.070, 6.220], P = 0.035), female donor for male recipient (OR 2.434, 95% CI [1.319, 4.493], P = 0.004) were risk factors for intestinal aGVHD. Conclusion: The presence of certain HLA loci and haplotypes may influence the occurrence of intestinal aGVHD in PBSCT with HLA-identical sibling donors.
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Relationships of Inflammatory Factors and Risk Factors with Different Target Organ Damage in Essential Hypertension Patients p. 1296
Chun-Lin Lai, Jin-Ping Xing, Xiao-Hong Liu, Jie Qi, Jian-Qiang Zhao, You-Rui Ji, Wu-Xiao Yang, Pu-Juan Yan, Chun-Yan Luo, Lu-Fang Ruan
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206343  PMID:28524828
Background: Atherosclerosis (AS) is an inflammatory disease. Inflammation was considered to play a role in the whole process of AS. This study aimed to analyze the relationships of inflammatory factors and risk factors with different target organ damages (TOD) in essential hypertension (EH) patients and to explore its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 294 EH patients were selected and divided into four groups according to their conditions of TOD. Forty-eight healthy subjects were selected as control. The clinical biochemical parameters, serum amyloid A, serum tryptase, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in each group were detected, and the related risk factors were also statistically analyzed. Results: Fibrinogen (Fbg) was the most significant independent risk factor in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) group (odds ratio [OR]: 22.242, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.458–76.609, P< 0.001) with the largest absolute value of the standardized partial regression coefficient B' (b': 1.079). Lp-PLA2 was the most significant independent risk factor in stroke group (OR: 13.699, 95% CI: 5.236–35.837, P< 0.001) with b' = 0.708. Uric acid (UA) was the most significant independent risk factor in renal damage group (OR: 15.307, 95% CI: 4.022–58.250, P< 0.001) with b' = 1.026. Conclusions: Fbg, Lp-PLA2, and UA are the strongest independent risk factors toward the occurrence of ACS, ischemic stroke, and renal damage in EH patients, thus exhibiting the greatest impacts on the occurrence of ACS, ischemic stroke, and renal damage in EH patients, respectively.
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Role of Diffusion-weighted and Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiating Activity of Ankylosing Spondylitis p. 1303
Ying-Hua Zhao, Yan-Yan Cao, Qun Zhang, Ying-Jie Mei, Ji-Jie Xiao, Shao-Yong Hu, Wei Li, Shao-Lin Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206359  PMID:28524829
Background: Previous studies showed that combining apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index value might provide a reliable evaluation of the activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and that contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unnecessary. However, the results were based on confirming only a small random sample. This study aimed to assess the role of CE-MRI in differentiating the disease activity of AS by comparing ADC value with a large sample. Methods: A total of 115 patients with AS were enrolled in accordance with Bath AS Disease Activity Index and laboratory indices, and 115 patients were divided into two groups, including active group (n = 69) and inactive group (n = 46). SPARCC, ΔSI, and ADC values were obtained from the short tau inversion recovery (STIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and CE-MRI, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed for all parameters. Results: The optimal cutoff values (with sensitivity, specificity, respective area under the curve, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio) for the differentiation between active and inactive groups are as follows: SPARCC = 6 (72.06%, 82.61%, 0.836, 4.14, 0.34); ΔSI (%) = 153 (80.6%, 84.78%, 0.819, 5.3, 0.23); ADC value = 1.15 × 10−3 mm2/s (72.73%, 81.82%, 0.786, 4, 0.33). No statistical differences were found among the predictive values of SPARCC, ΔSI, and ADC. Multivariate analysis showed no significant difference between the combination of SPARCC and ADC values with and without ΔSI. Conclusions: Using large sample, we concluded that the combination of STIR and DWI would play significant roles in assessing the disease activity, and CE-MRI sequence is not routinely used in imaging of AS to avoid renal fibrosis and aggravation of kidney disease.
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Using Ultrasonography to Evaluate the Relationship between Capsular Invasion or Extracapsular Extension and Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas p. 1309
Wei-Ping Jiao, Lei Zhang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206339  PMID:28524830
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that ultrasonography is the recommended imaging modality for preoperative staging of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). However, only a few studies have kept watch on preoperative evaluation of capsular invasion (CI) or extracapsular extension (ECE) and cervical lymph node metastasis using preoperative ultrasonography. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the CI or ECE and the cervical lymph node metastasis in PTCs using preoperative ultrasonography and postoperative pathology in Chinese patients. Methods: The data of preoperative ultrasonography and postoperative pathology of 166 patients who had a definitive diagnosis of PTCs from October 2011 to July 2014 at Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing were collected and reviewed. Preoperative ultrasonic parameters of thyroid nodules were compared with those of postoperative pathological diagnoses. All the patients were divided into bilateral PTCs group (n = 42, 78 nodules) and unilateral PTCs group (n = 124, 124 nodules), and the data of the nodule sizes, CI or ECE, and cervical lymph node metastasis by preoperative ultrasonography were compared between two groups. Results: A total of 202 nodules of 166 patients which were confirmed by preoperative ultrasonography and postoperative pathology were analyzed. Hypoechogenicity (n = 201, 99.5%) and irregular margins (n = 167, 82.7%) were the main ultrasonic characteristics of PTCs. A significant moderate agreement between preoperative ultrasonic examination and postoperative pathology for CI or ECE (κ = 0.622, P< 0.001) was observed. The diagnostic sensitivity was 92.0%, and specificity was 71.1%. In bilateral PTCs group, 81.0% had CI or ECE, and 61.9% had cervical lymph node metastasis. In unilateral PTCs group, 76.6% had CI or ECE, and 58.1% had cervical lymph node metastasis. There were no significant differences in the incidence of CI or ECE and cervical lymph node metastasis between two groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Ultrasonography was proved to be a valuable method for preoperative diagnosis of PTCs. Hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were strongly associated with PTCs. CI or ECE in unilateral PTCs strongly implied the cervical lymph node metastasis. Therefore, the cervical lymph nodes should be carefully examined by ultrasonography in patients with PTCs.
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A Case Series of Liver Abscess Formation after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatic Tumors p. 1314
Wei Sun, Fei Xu, Xiao Li, Chen-Rui Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206345  PMID:28524831
Background: Liver abscess is a serious complication following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Much attention has been paid to this condition as it may interfere with the treatment process and result in a poor prognosis of the patient. This study aimed to analyze the causes of liver abscess, a complication, after TACE for hepatic tumors and to summarize management approaches. Methods: From June 2012 to June 2014, of 1480 consecutive patients who underwent TACE at our hospital, five patients developed liver abscess after TACE procedures for hepatic tumors. Of the five patients, each receiving conventional TACE, one underwent three sessions, two underwent two sessions, and the remaining two underwent one session of TACE. Demographic and clinical characteristics, together with management approaches and prognosis, were collected through a review of medical records. Results: These five patients were confirmed to have post-TACE liver abscess through clinical manifestations, laboratory, and imaging tests. After percutaneous drainage and anti-inflammatory treatments, the symptoms present in four patients with liver abscess significantly improved as evidenced by shrinkage or disappearance of the abscess cavity, and the patients recovered completely after sufficient drainage. The remaining patient experienced recurrent symptoms and abdominal abscess, achieved no significant improvement after treatment, and eventually died of severe infection and multiple organ failures. Conclusions: TACE must be implemented with extreme caution to avoid liver abscess. An effective management relies on an early diagnosis, prompt use of sufficient doses of appropriate antibiotics, and active implementation of abscess incision, drainage, and aspiration.
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Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015 p. 1320
Yan-Ling Ge, Xiao-Wen Zhai, Yan-Feng Zhu, Xiang-Shi Wang, Ai-Mei Xia, Yue-Fang Li, Mei Zeng
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206358  PMID:28524832
Background: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. Methods: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA. The clinical data were statistically analyzed by t-test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Results: From March 9 to July 25 in 2015, a total of 23 children with malignancies and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (post-HSCT) were notified to develop measles in Shanghai. Of these 23 patients with the median age of 5.5 years (range: 11 months–14 years), 20 (87.0%) had received 1–3 doses of measles vaccine previously; all patients had fever with the median fever duration of 8 days; 21 (91.3%) had cough; 18 (78.3%) had rash; 13 (56.5%) had Koplik's spot; 13 (56.5%) had complications including pneumonia and acute liver failure; and five (21.7%) vaccinated patients died from severe pneumonia or acute liver failure. Except the first patient, all patients had hospital visits within 7–21 days before measles onset and 20 patients were likely to be exposed to each other. Conclusions: The outcome of measles outbreak in previously vaccinated oncology and post-HSCT pediatric patients during chemotherapy and immunosuppressant medication was severe. Complete loss of protective immunity induced by measles vaccine during chemotherapy was the potential reason. Improved infection control practice was critical for the prevention of measles in malignancy patients and transplant recipients.
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Promoting Vasa Vasorum Neovascularization of Vein Grafts Extenuates Hypoxia of the Wall and Its Subsequent Influence on Intimal Hyperplasia p. 1327
Rong-Jiang Zou, Zheng-Hua Wang, Chen-Xi Wang, Song Xue
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206354  PMID:28524833
Background: The autologous saphenous vein is the most common conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting, but the vein graft disease will occur. This study used Matrigel basement membrane matrix with many different growth factors to promote vasa vasorum neovascularization and extenuate the hypoxia to improve remodeling. Methods: This study observed the hypoxia and thickness of the vein grafts at different times. Normal veins and vein grafts with 15 min of ischemia one day postoperatively were harvested in the neck of rabbits. Paired vein grafts with 15 min ischemia bilaterally (control vs. Matrigel basement membrane matrix) were performed and harvested at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The rabbits were randomly divided into four postoperative groups (six rabbits in each group): Group 1, one day postoperatively; Group 2, 2 weeks postoperatively; Group 3, 6 weeks postoperatively; and Group 4, 12 weeks postoperatively. The dimensions of vessel wall were captured, and the mean thicknesses of intima, media, and adventitia were measured. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α labeling indices of intima, media, and adventitia were also measured. Results: In Group 1, the labeling index of HIF-1α was high in the normal vein and decreased significantly in the vein graft one day postoperatively (intima: 80 ± 3% vs. 12 ± 1%, P = 0.01; media: 67 ± 5% vs. 11 ± 1%, P = 0.01; adventitia: 40 ± 10% vs. 7 ± 2%, P = 0.03). The labeling index of HIF-2α had similar trend as HIF-1α (intima: 80 ± 10% vs. 10 ± 5%, P = 0.02; media: 60 ± 14% vs. 12 ± 2%, P = 0.01; adventitia: 45 ± 20% vs. 10 ± 4%, P = 0.03). Compared with the control vein grafts, vein grafts with Matrigel basement membrane matrix had lower labeling indices of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in media and adventitia at Group 2 (HIF-1α: 34 ± 5% vs. 20 ± 4%, P = 0.04 for media; 23 ± 3% vs. 11 ± 2%, P = 0.03 for adventitia; HIF-2α: 37 ± 6% vs. 21 ± 4%, P = 0.03 for media; 24 ± 4% vs. 13 ± 2%, P = 0.04 for adventitia) and Group 3 (HIF-1α: 33 ± 4% vs. 7 ± 2%, P = 0.04 for media; 13 ± 3% vs. 3 ± 1%, P = 0.02 for adventitia; HIF-2α: 27 ± 4% vs. 12 ± 3%, P = 0.02 for media; 19 ± 2% vs. 6 ± 1%, P = 0.02 for adventitia). There were no differences in mean thickness of intima, media, and adventitia between bilateral vein grafts at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Conclusions: This study indicated that promoting vasa vasorum neovascularization of vein grafts extenuated hypoxia, but did not influence the intimal hyperplasia of the wall.
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Wild-type p53-induced Phosphatase 1 Deficiency Exacerbates Myocardial Infarction-induced Ischemic Injury p. 1333
Ke-Mei Liu, Hai-Hong Zhang, Ya-Nan Wang, Lian-Mei Wang, Hong-Yu Chen, Cai-Feng Long, Lian-Feng Zhang, Hong-Bing Zhang, Hong-Bing Yan
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206353  PMID:28524834
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major disease burden. Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) has been studied extensively in the context of cancer and the regulation of different types of stem cells, but the role of Wip1 in cardiac adaptation to MI is unknown. We investigated the significance of Wip1 in a mouse model of MI. Methods: The study began in June 2014 and was completed in July 2016. We compared Wip1-knockout (Wip1-KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to determine changes in cardiac function and survival in response to MI. The heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio and cardiac function were measured before MI. Mouse MI was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery under 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia. After MI, survival of the mice was observed for 4 weeks. Cardiac function was examined by echocardiography. The HW/BW ratio was analyzed, and cardiac hypertrophy was measured by wheat germ agglutinin staining. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to determine the infarct size. Gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (stat3) and phosphor-stat3 (p-stat3) were also analyzed by Western blotting. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank test, unpaired t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analyses. Results: Wip1-KO mice had a marginally increased HW/BW ratio and slightly impaired cardiac function before LAD ligation. After MI, Wip1-deficient mice exhibited increased mortality (57.14% vs. 29.17%; n = 24 [WT], n = 35 [Wip1-KO], P< 0.05), increased cardiac hypertrophy (HW/BW ratio: 7 days: 7.25 ± 0.36 vs. 5.84 ± 0.18, n = 10, P< 0.01, and 4 weeks: 6.05 ± 0.17 vs. 5.87 ± 0.24, n = 10, P > 0.05; cross-sectional area: 7 days: 311.80 ± 8.29 vs. 268.90 ± 11.15, n = 6, P< 0.05, and 4 weeks: 308.80 ± 11.26 vs. 317.00 ± 13.55, n = 6, P > 0.05), and reduced cardiac function (ejection fraction: 7 days: 29.37 ± 1.38 vs. 34.72 ± 1.81, P< 0.05, and 4 weeks: 19.06 ± 2.07 vs. 26.37 ± 2.95, P< 0.05; fractional shortening: 7 days: 13.72 ± 0.71 vs. 16.50 ± 0.94, P< 0.05, and 4 weeks: 8.79 ± 1.00 vs. 12.48 ± 1.48, P< 0.05; n = 10 [WT], n = 15 [Wip1-KO]). H&E staining revealed a larger infarct size in Wip1-KO mice than in WT mice (34.79% ± 2.44% vs. 19.55% ± 1.48%, n = 6, P< 0.01). The expression of IL-6 and p-stat3 was downregulated in Wip1-KO mice (IL-6: 1.71 ± 0.27 vs. 4.46 ± 0.79, n = 6, P< 0.01; and p-stat3/stat3: 1.15 ± 0.15 vs. 1.97 ± 0.23, n = 6, P< 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that Wip1 could protect the heart from MI-induced ischemic injury.
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Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2-induced Retinal Ischemic Injury in a Novel Mice Model of Ocular Ischemia Syndrome p. 1342
Yu Wang, Xiao-Lei Wang, Guo-Li Xie, Hong-Yang Li, Yan-Ling Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206340  PMID:28524835
Background: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) has been shown to be involved in ischemia/hypoxia (IH) injury. We determined whether CRMP2 modulates ischemic injury in the retinal of Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS). This study was to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying OIS in a novel mice model. Methods: Experiments were performed on adult male C57/BL6 mice that received bilateral internal carotid arteries ligation for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The mice received injection of calpeptin group before occlusion for 4 weeks or not. The expression of CRMP2 in the retinal was examined by western blotting (WB) analysis and immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). The effects of ischemic injury on retinal were evaluated by fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, electroretinogram, cell counting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC), and measurement of the thickness of the retina. Results: The veins dilated after chronic ischemia. In the electroretinography, the amplitudes of a- and b-waves kept diminishing in an ischemia time-dependent manner. Moreover, the tail vein-retinal circulation time prolonged in the 1- and 2-week group. In comparison, thickness of the retina decreased gradually with the ischemia time elapsed. WB analysis showed the CRMP2 and p-CRMP2 levels decreased in the 2- and 4-week groups. The results of IHC analysis were compatible with our results of WB. The loss of RGCs, decrease of the total reaction time and reduction of CRMP2 was alleviated by intravitreal injection of calpeptin. Conclusions: These results revealed that bilateral ligation of the internal carotid artery causes retinal ischemia in mice. Moreover, CRMP2 might play a pivotal role during the ischemic injury in the retina and inhibit the cleavage of CRMP2 can ameliorate the IH injury.
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Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibition on the Expression of Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 2 in a Human Placental Trophoblast Cell Line p. 1352
Hong-Yu Duan, Dan Ma, Kai-Yu Zhou, Tao Wang, Yi Zhang, Yi-Fei Li, Jin-Lin Wu, Yi-Min Hua, Chuan Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206352  PMID:28524836
Background: Placental multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), encoded by ABCC2 gene in human, plays a significant role in regulating drugs' transplacental transfer rates. Studies on placental MRP2 regulation could provide more therapeutic targets for individualized and safe pharmacotherapy during pregnancy. Currently, the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating placental drug transporters are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition on MRP2 expression in the placental trophoblast cell line and to explore whether HDAC1/2/3 are preliminarily involved in this process. Methods: The human choriocarcinoma-derived trophoblast cell line (Bewo cells) was treated with the HDAC inhibitors-trichostatin A (TSA) at different concentration gradients of 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 μmol/L. Cells were harvested after 24 and 48 h treatment. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for HDAC1/HDAC2/HDAC3 or control siRNA was transfected into cells. Total HDAC activity was detected by colorimetric assay kits. HDAC1/2/3/ABCC2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western-blot analysis, respectively. Immunofluorescence for MRP2 protein expression was visualized and assessed using an immunofluorescence microscopy and ImageJ software, respectively. Results: TSA could inhibit total HDAC activity and HDAC1/2/3 expression in company with increase of MRP2 expression in Bewo cells. Reduction of HDAC1 protein level was noted after 24 h of TSA incubation at 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 μmol/L (vs. vehicle group, all P < 0.001), accompanied with dose-dependent induction of MRP2 expression (P = 0.045 for 1.0 μmol/L, P = 0.001 for 3.0 μmol/L, and P < 0.001 for 5.0 μmol/L), whereas no significant differences in MRP2 expression were noted after HDAC2/3 silencing. Fluorescent micrograph images of MRP2 protein were expressed on the cell membrane. The fluorescent intensities of MRP2 in the control, HDAC2, and HDAC3 siRNA-transfected cells were week, and no significant differences were noticed among these three groups (all P > 0.05). However, MRP2 expression was remarkably elevated in HDAC1 siRNA-transfected cells, which displayed an almost 3.19-fold changes in comparison with the control siRNA-transfected cells (P < 0.001). Conclusions: HDACs inhibition could up-regulate placental MRP2 expression in vitro, and HDAC1 was probably to be involved in this process.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Complications Following Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review p. 1361
Jin-Fen Wang, Tao Wu, Kun-Peng Hu, Wen Xu, Bo-Wen Zheng, Ge Tong, Zhi-Cheng Yao, Bo Liu, Jie Ren
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206347  PMID:28524837
Objective: This systematic review examined whether radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe treatment modality for benign thyroid nodules (BTNs). Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for articles that (a) targeted human beings and (b) had a study population with BTNs that were confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and/or core needle biopsy. Study Selection: Thirty-two studies relating to 3409 patients were included in this systematic review. Results: Based on literatures, no deaths were associated with the procedure, serious complications were rare, and RFA appears to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment modality. However, a broad spectrum of complications offers insights into some undesirable complications, such as track needle seeding and Horner syndrome. Conclusions: RFA appears to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment modality for BTNs. More research is needed to characterize the complications of RFA for thyroid nodules.
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PERSPECTIVE Top

Interventional Radiology in China: Current Status and Future Prospects p. 1371
He Zhao, Jiay-Wei Tsauo, Xiao-Wu Zhang, Xiao Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206355  PMID:28524838
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CLINICAL EXPERIENCE Top

Surgery for Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma in Lower Part of Superior Mediastinum through a Transcervical Incision p. 1376
Xing Wang, Yi-Ming Zhu, Hui Huang, Li-Peng Zhang, Ye Zhang, Xiao-Lei Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206350  PMID:28524839
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CLINICAL PRACTICE Top

A Novel De novo GATA-binding Protein 3 Mutation in a Patient with Hypoparathyroidism, Sensorineural Deafness, and Renal Dysplasia Syndrome p. 1378
Xue-Ying Chu, Yue-Peng Li, Min Nie, Ou Wang, Yan Jiang, Mei Li, Wei-Bo Xia, Xiao-Ping Xing
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206348  PMID:28524840
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Ex utero Intrapartum Treatment for the Pericardial Effusion Drain of a Fetal Cardiac Tumor p. 1381
Jian Zhuang, Wei Pan, Cheng-Bin Zhou, Feng-Zhen Han
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206342  PMID:28524841
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

Surgical Treatment of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy with Absent Pulmonary Valve p. 1383
Hong-Chang Guo, Chang-Wei Ren, Jiang Dai, Yong-Qiang Lai
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206344  PMID:28524842
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A 10-year-old Girl with Metastatic Unclassified Sarcoma with Epithelioid Features p. 1385
Zheng-Xiu Li, Song Zheng, Hang-Hang Jiang, Yu-Zhe Sun, Rui-Qun Qi, Yu-Xiao Hong, Xing-Hua Gao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.206351  PMID:28524843
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