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   Table of Contents - Current issue
5th October 2018
Volume 131 | Issue 19
Page Nos. 2269-2394

Online since Friday, September 21, 2018

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Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Carotid Artery Disease in a Community-Based Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study Highly accessed article p. 2269
Yu-Chen Guo, Yong Zhou, Xing Gao, Yan Yao, Bin Geng, Qing-Hua Cui, Ji-Chun Yang, Hong-Pu Hu
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases with a high prevalence in the general population. The association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease has been well addressed in previous studies. However, whether NAFLD is associated with carotid artery disease in a community-based Chinese population remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between NAFLD and carotid artery disease. Methods: A total of 2612 participants (1091 men and 1521 women) aged 40 years and older from Jidong of Tangshan city (China) were selected for this study. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The presence of carotid stenosis or plaque was evaluated by carotid artery ultrasonography. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between NAFLD and carotid artery disease. Results: Participants with NAFLD have a higher prevalence of carotid stenosis (12.9% vs. 4.6%) and carotid plaque (21.9% vs. 15.0%) than those without NAFLD. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, income, physical activity, diabetes, hypertension, triglyceride, waist-hip ratio, and high-density lipoprotein, NAFLD is significantly associated with carotid stenosis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–2.91), but the association between NAFLD and carotid plaque is not statistically significant (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.8–1.40). Conclusion: A significant association between NAFLD and carotid stenosis is found in a Chinese population.
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Feasibility Analysis of Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Nutrition Resumption on H9c2 Cells In vitro Models of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Highly accessed article p. 2277
Gui-Zhen Yang, Fu-Shan Xue, Ya-Yang Liu, Hui-Xian Li, Qing Liu, Xu Liao
Background: Oxygen-glucose deprivation-nutrition resumption (OGD-NR) models on H9c2 cells are commonly used in vitro models of simulated myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), but no study has assessed whether these methods for establishing in vitro models can effectively imitate the characteristics of MIRI in vivo. This experiment was designed to analyze the feasibility of six OGD-NR models of MIRI. Methods: By searching the PubMed database using the keywords “myocardial reperfusion injury H9c2 cells,” we obtained six commonly used OGD-NR in vitro models of MIRI performed on H9c2 cells from more than 400 published papers before January 30, 2017. For each model, control (C), simulated ischemia (SI), and simulated ischemia-reperfusion (SIR) groups were assigned, and cell morphology, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and inflammatory cytokines were examined to evaluate the characteristics of cell injury. Subsequently, a coculture system of cardiomyocyte-endothelial-macrophage was constructed. The coculture system was dealt with SI and SIR treatments to test the effect on cardiomyocytes survival. Results: For models 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, SI treatment caused morphological damage to cells, and subsequent SIR treatment did not cause further morphological damage. In the models 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, LDH release was significantly higher in the SI groups than that in the C group (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in the SIR groups than that in the SI groups (P < 0.05), except for no significant differences in the LDH release between C, SI and SIR groups in model 6 receiving a 3-h SI treatment. In models 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, compared with the C group, ATP levels of the SI groups significantly decreased (P < 0.05), ROS levels increased (P < 0.05), and MMP levels decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the SI group, ATP level of the SIR groups was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and there was no significant ROS production, MMP collapse, and over inflammatory response in the SIR groups. In a coculture system of H9c2 cells-endothelial cells-macrophages, the proportion of viable H9c2 cells in the SIR groups was not reduced compared with the SI groups. Conclusion: All the six OGD-NR models on H9c2 cells in this experiment can not imitate the characteristics of MIRI in vivo and are not suitable for MIRI-related study.
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Effect of the Shensong Yangxin Capsule on Energy Metabolism in Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy p. 2287
Bei-Lei Liu, Mian Cheng, Shan Hu, Shun Wang, Le Wang, Zheng-Qing Hu, Cong-Xin Huang, Hong Jiang, Gang Wu
Background: Shensong Yangxin Capsule (SSYX), traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat arrhythmias, angina, cardiac remodeling, cardiac fibrosis, and so on, but its effect on cardiac energy metabolism is still not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SSYX on myocardium energy metabolism in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: We used 2 μl (10−6 mol/L) AngII to treat neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) for 48 h. Myocardial α-actinin staining showed that the myocardial cell volume increased. Expression of the cardiac hypertrophic marker-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) messenger RNA (mRNA) also increased by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, it can be assumed that the model of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes was successfully constructed. Then, NRCMs were treated with 1 μl of different concentrations of SSYX (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml) for another 24 h. To explore the time-depend effect of SSYX on energy metabolism, 0.5 μg/ml SSYX was added into cells for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Mitochondria was assessed by MitoTracker staining and confocal microscopy. mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes – Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), energy balance key factor – adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), fatty acids oxidation factor – carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), and glucose oxidation factor – glucose transporter- 4 (GLUT-4) were measured by PCR and Western blotting analysis. Results: With the increase in the concentration of SSYX (from 0.25 to 1.0 μg/ml), an increased mitochondrial density in AngII-induced cardiomyocytes was found compared to that of those treated with AngII only (0.25 μg/ml, 18.3300 ± 0.8895 vs. 24.4900 ± 0.9041, t = 10.240, P < 0.0001; 0.5 μg/ml, 18.3300 ± 0.8895 vs. 25.9800 ± 0.8187, t = 12.710, P < 0.0001; and 1.0 μg/ml, 18.3300 ± 0.8895 vs. 24.2900 ± 1.3120, t = 9.902, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group). SSYX also increased the mRNA and protein expression of PGC-1α (0.25 μg/ml, 0.8892 ± 0.0848 vs. 1.0970 ± 0.0994, t = 4.319, P = 0.0013; 0.5 μg/ml, 0.8892 ± 0.0848 vs. 1.2330 ± 0.0564, t = 7.150, P < 0.0001; and 1.0 μg/ml, 0.8892 ± 0.0848 vs. 1.1640 ± 0.0755, t = 5.720, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group), AMPK (0.25 μg/ml, 0.8872 ± 0.0779 vs. 1.1500 ± 0.0507, t = 7.239, P < 0.0001; 0.5 μg/ml, 0.8872 ± 0.0779 vs. 1.2280 ± 0.0623, t = 9.379, P < 0.0001; and 1.0 μg/ml, 0.8872 ± 0.0779 vs. 1.3020 ± 0.0450, t = 11.400, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group), CPT-1 (1.0 μg/ml, 0.7348 ± 0.0594 vs. 0.9880 ± 0.0851, t = 4.994, P = 0.0007, n = 5), and GLUT-4 (0.5 μg/ml, 1.5640 ± 0.0599 vs. 1.7720 ± 0.0660, t = 3.783, P = 0.0117; 1.0 μg/ml, 1.5640 ± 0.0599 vs. 2.0490 ± 0.1280, t = 8.808, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group). The effect became more obvious with the increasing concentration of SSYX. When 0.5 μg/ml SSYX was added into cells for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, the expression of AMPK (6 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 16.5200 ± 0.7450, t = 3.456, P = 0.0250; 12 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 18.3200 ± 0.9965, t = 6.720, P < 0.0001; 24 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 21.8800 ± 0.8208, t = 13.160, P < 0.0001; and 48 h, 14.6100 ± 0.6205 vs. 23.7400 ± 1.0970, t = 16.530, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group), PGC-1α (12 h, 11.4700 ± 0.7252 vs. 16.9000 ± 1.0150, t = 7.910, P < 0.0001; 24 h, 11.4700 ± 0.7252 vs. 20.8800 ± 1.2340, t = 13.710, P < 0.0001; and 48 h, 11.4700 ± 0.7252 vs. 22.0300 ± 1.4180, t = 15.390; n = 5 per dosage group), CPT-1 (24 h, 15.1600 ± 1.0960 vs. 18.5800 ± 0.9049, t = 6.048, P < 0.0001, n = 5), and GLUT-4 (6 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 12.9700 ± 0.8221, t = 4.763, P = 0.0012; 12 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 16.9100 ± 0.8481, t = 11.590, P < 0.0001; 24 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 19.0900 ± 0.9797, t = 15.360, P < 0.0001; and 48 h, 10.2100 ± 0.9485 vs. 14.1900 ± 0.9611, t = 6.877, P < 0.0001; n = 5 per dosage group) mRNA and protein increased gradually with the prolongation of drug action time. Conclusions: SSYX could increase myocardial energy metabolism in AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, SSYX might be considered to be an alternative therapeutic remedy for myocardial hypertrophy.
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Effects of Risperidone and Paliperidone on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and N400 in First-Episode Schizophrenia p. 2297
Rong-Qin Wu, Chong-Guang Lin, Wei Zhang, Xiao-Dong Lin, Xing-Shi Chen, Ce Chen, Li-Jun Zhang, Zi-Ye Huang, Guang-Dong Chen, Da-Li Xu, Zhi-Guang Lin, Ming-Dao Zhang
Background: Risperidone and paliperidone have been the mainstay treatment for schizophrenia and their potential role in neuroprotection could be associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N400 (an event-related brain potential component). So far, different effects on both BDNF and N400 were reported in relation to various antipsychotic treatments. However, few studies have been conducted on the mechanism of risperidone and paliperidone on BDNF and N400. This study aimed to compare the effects of risperidone and paliperidone on BDNF and the N400 component of the event-related brain potential in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Ninety-eight patients with first-episode schizophrenia were randomly divided into the risperidone and paliperidone groups and treated with risperidone and paliperidone, respectively, for 12 weeks. Serum BDNF level, the latency, and amplitude of the N400 event-related potential before and after the treatment and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 94 patients were included in the final analysis (47 patients in each group). After the treatment, the serum BDNF levels in both groups increased (all P < 0.01), while no significant difference in serum BDNF level was found between the groups before and after the treatment (all P > 0.05). After the treatment, N400 amplitudes were increased (from 4.73 ± 2.86 μv and 4.51 ± 4.63 μv to 5.35 ± 4.18 μv and 5.52 ± 3.08 μv, respectively) under congruent condition in both risperidone and paliperidone groups (all P < 0.01). Under incongruent conditions, the N400 latencies were shortened in the paliperidone group (from 424.13 ± 110.42 ms to 4.7.41 ± 154.59 ms, P < 0.05), and the N400 amplitudes were increased in the risperidone group (from 5.80 ± 3.50 μv to 7.17 ± 5.51 μv, P < 0.01). After treatment, the total PANSS score in both groups decreased significantly (all P < 0.01), but the difference between the groups was not significant (P > 0.05). A negative correlation between the reduction rate of the PANSS score and the increase in serum BDNF level after the treatment was found in the paliperidone group but not in the risperidone group. Conclusions: Both risperidone and paliperidone could increase the serum BDNF levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and improve their cognitive function (N400 latency and amplitude), but their antipsychotic mechanisms might differ.
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Cardiac Fibroblast-Specific Activating Transcription Factor 3 Promotes Myocardial Repair after Myocardial Infarction p. 2302
Yu-Lin Li, Wen-Jing Hao, Bo-Ya Chen, Jing Chen, Guo-Qi Li
Background: Myocardial ischemia injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) have central roles in modulating cardiac function under pathophysiological conditions. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) plays a self-protective role in counteracting CF dysfunction. However, the precise function of CF-specific ATF3 during myocardial infarction (MI) injury/repair remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether CF-specific ATF3 affected cardiac repair after MI. Methods: Fifteen male C57BL/6 wild-type mice were performed with MI operation to observe the expression of ATF3 at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 7.0 days postoperation. Model for MI was constructed in ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre+ (CF-specific ATF3 overexpression group, n = 5) and ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre− male mice (without CF-specific ATF3 overexpression group, n = 5). In addition, five mice of ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre+ and ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre− were subjected to sham MI operation. Heart function was detected by ultrasound and left ventricular remodeling was observed by Masson staining (myocardial fibrosis area was detected by blue collagen deposition area) at the 28th day after MI surgery in ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre+ and ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre− mice received sham or MI operation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect cell proliferation/cell cycle-related gene expression in cardiac tissue. BrdU staining was used to detect fibroblast proliferation. Results: After establishment of an MI model, we found that ATF3 proteins were increased in the heart of mice after MI surgery and dominantly expressed in CFs. Genetic overexpression of ATF3 in CFs (ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre+ group) resulted in an improvement in the heart function as indicated by increased cardiac ejection fraction (41.0% vs. 30.5%, t = 8.610, P = 0.001) and increased fractional shortening (26.8% vs. 18.1%, t = 7.173, P = 0.002), which was accompanied by a decrease in cardiac scar area (23.1% vs. 11.0%, t = 8.610, P = 0.001). qRT-PCR analysis of CFs isolated from ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre+ and ATF3TGfl/flCol1a2-Cre− ischemic hearts revealed a distinct transcriptional profile in ATF3-overexpressing CFs, displaying pro-proliferation properties. BrdU-positive cells significantly increased in ATF3-overexpressing CFs than control CFs under angiotensin II stimuli (11.5% vs. 6.8%, t = 31.599, P = 0.001) or serum stimuli (31.6% vs. 20.1%, t = 31.599, P = 0.001). The 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester assay showed that the cell numbers of the P2 and P3 generations were higher in the ATF3-overexpressing CFs at 24 h (P2: 91.6% vs. 71.8%, t = 8.465, P = 0.015) and 48 h (P3: 81.6% vs. 51.1%, t = 9.029, P = 0.012) after serum stimulation. Notably, ATF3 overexpression-induced CF proliferation was clearly increased in the heart after MI injury. Conclusions: We identify that CF-specific ATF3 might contribute to be MI repair through upregulating the expression of cell cycle/proliferation-related genes and enhancing cell proliferation.
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Role of X-Box Binding Protein-1 in Fructose-Induced De Novo Lipogenesis in HepG2 Cells p. 2310
Xian Yu, Lu-Ping Ren, Chao Wang, Ya-Jun Zhu, Han-Ying Xing, Jing Zhao, Guang-Yao Song
Background: A high consumption of fructose leads to hepatic steatosis. About 20–30% of triglycerides are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis. Some studies showed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is involved in this process, while others showed that a lipotoxic environment directly influences ER homeostasis. Here, our aim was to investigate the causal relationship between ERS and fatty acid synthesis and the effect of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1), one marker of ERS, on hepatic lipid accumulation stimulated by high fructose. Methods: HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of fructose. Upstream regulators of de novo lipogenesis (i.e., carbohydrate response element-binding protein [ChREBP] and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c [SREBP-1c]) were measured by polymerase chain reaction and key lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase [ACC], fatty acid synthase [FAS], and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 [SCD-1]) by Western blotting. The same lipogenesis-associated factors were then evaluated after exposure of HepG2 cells to high fructose followed by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or the ERS inducer thapsigargin. Finally, the same lipogenesis-associated factors were evaluated in HepG2 cells after XBP-1 upregulation or downregulation through cell transfection. Results: Exposure to high fructose increased triglyceride levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner and significantly increased mRNA levels of SREBP-1c and ChREBP and protein levels of FAS, ACC, and SCD-1, concomitant with XBP-1 conversion to an active spliced form. Lipogenesis-associated factors induced by high fructose were inhibited by TUDCA and induced by thapsigargin. Triglyceride level in XBP-1-deficient group decreased significantly compared with high-fructose group (4.41 ± 0.54 μmol/g vs. 6.52 ± 0.38 μmol/g, P < 0.001), as mRNA expressions of SREBP-1c (2.92 ± 0.46 vs. 5.08 ± 0.41, P < 0.01) and protein levels of FAS (0.53 ± 0.06 vs. 0.85 ± 0.05, P = 0.01), SCD-1 (0.65 ± 0.06 vs. 0.90 ± 0.04, P = 0.04), and ACC (0.38 ± 0.03 vs. 0.95 ± 0.06, P < 0.01) decreased. Conversely, levels of triglyceride (4.22 ± 0.54 μmol/g vs. 2.41 ± 0.35 μmol/g, P < 0.001), mRNA expression of SREBP-1c (2.70 ± 0.33 vs. 1.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.01), and protein expression of SCD-1 (0.93 ± 0.06 vs. 0.26 ± 0.05, P < 0.01), ACC (0.98 ± 0.09 vs. 0.43 ± 0.03, P < 0.01), and FAS (0.90 ± 0.33 vs. 0.71 ± 0.02, P = 0.04) in XBP-1s-upregulated group increased compared with the untransfected group. Conclusions: ERS is associated with de novo lipogenesis, and XBP-1 partially mediates high-fructose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells through augmentation of de novo lipogenesis.
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XB130 Knockdown Inhibits the Proliferation, Invasiveness, and Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells and Sensitizes them to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis p. 2320
Guang-Ming Li, Chao-Jie Liang, Dong-Xin Zhang, Li-Jun Zhang, Ji-Xiang Wu, Ying-Chen Xu
Background: XB130 is a recently discovered adaptor protein that is highly expressed in many malignant tumors, but few studies have investigated its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, this study explored the relationship between this protein and liver cancer and investigated its molecular mechanism of action. Methods: The expression of XB130 between HCC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues was compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunochemistry, and Western blotting. XB130 silencing was performed using small hairpin RNA. The effect of silencing XB130 was examined using Cell Counting Kit-8, colony assay, wound healing assay, and cell cycle analysis. Results: We found that XB130 was highly expressed in HCC tissues (cancer tissues vs. adjacent tissues: 0.23 ± 0.02 vs. 0.17 ± 0.02, P < 0.05) and liver cancer cell lines, particularly MHCC97H and HepG2 (MHCC97H and HepG2 vs. normal liver cell line LO-2: 2.35 ± 0.26 and 2.04 ± 0.04 vs. 1.00 ± 0.04, respectively, all P < 0.05). The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, colony formation assay, and xenograft model in nude mice showed that silencing XB130 inhibited cell proliferative ability both in vivo and in vitro, with flow cytometry demonstrating that the cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase in HepG2 (HepG2 XB130-silenced group [shA] vs. HepG2 scramble group [NA]: 74.32 ± 5.86% vs. 60.21 ± 3.07%, P < 0.05) and that the number of G2/M phase cells was decreased (HepG2 shA vs. HepG2 NA: 8.06 ± 2.41% vs. 18.36 ± 4.42%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the cell invasion and migration abilities were impaired, and the levels of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related indicators vimentin and N-cadherin were decreased, although the level of E-cadherin was increased after silencing XB130. Western blotting showed that the levels of phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt) also increased, although the level of phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog increased, indicating that XB130 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway. Furthermore, we found that a reduction in XB130 increased liver cancer cell sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that XB130 might be used as a predictor of liver cancer as well as one of the targets for its treatment.
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Advances in the Surgical Treatment of Neuroblastoma p. 2332
Yan-Bing Luo, Xi-Chun Cui, Lin Yang, Da Zhang, Jia-Xiang Wang
Objective: This study was to review the efficacy of surgical resections in different clinical situations for a better understanding of the meaning of surgery in the treatment of neuroblastoma (NB). Data Sources: The online database ScienceDirect (201–2018) was utilized. The search was conducted using the keywords “neuroblastoma,” “neuroblastoma resection,” “neuroblastoma surgery,” and “high-risk neuroblastoma.” Study Selection: We retrospectively analyzed of patients who underwent surgical resections in different clinical situations. The article included findings from selected relevant randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses or good-quality observational studies. Abstracts only, letters, and editorial notes were excluded. Full-text articles and abstracts were extracted and reviewed to identify key articles discussing surgery management of NB, which were then selected for critical analysis. Results: A total of 7800 English language articles were found containing references to NB (201–2018). The 163 articles were searched which were related to the surgical treatment of NB (201–2018). Through the analysis of these important articles, we found that the treatments of NB at low- and intermediate-risk groups were basically the same. High-risk patients remained controversial. Conclusions: NB prognosis varies tremendously based on the stage and biologic features of the tumor. After reviewing the relevant literature, patients with low-risk disease are often managed with surgical resection or observation alone with tumors likely to spontaneously regress that are not causing symptoms. Intermediate patients are treated with chemotherapy with the number of cycles depending on their response as well as surgical resection of the primary tumor. High-risk patients remain controversial. Multidisciplinary intensive treatment is essential, especially for patients who received subtotal tumor resection. Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of NBs without image-defined risk factors in low- to high-risk patients is safe and feasible and does not compromise the treatment outcome. We conclude that ≥90% resection of the primary tumor is both feasible and safe in most patients with high-risk NB. New targeted therapies are crucial to improve survival.
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Common Injuries and Repair Mechanisms in the Endothelial Lining p. 2338
Ling-Bing Meng, Kun Chen, Yuan-Meng Zhang, Tao Gong
Objective: Endothelial cells (ECs) are important metabolic and endocrinal organs which play a significant role in regulating vascular function. Vascular ECs, located between the blood and vascular tissues, can not only complete the metabolism of blood and interstitial fluid but also synthesize and secrete a variety of biologically active substances to maintain vascular tension and keep a normal flow of blood and long-term patency. Therefore, this article presents a systematic review of common injuries and healing mechanisms for the vascular endothelium. Data Sources: An extensive search in the PubMed database was undertaken, focusing on research published after 2003 with keywords including endothelium, vascular, wounds and injuries, and wound healing. Study Selection: Several types of articles, including original studies and literature reviews, were identified and reviewed to summarize common injury and repair processes of the endothelial lining. Results: Endothelial injury is closely related to the development of multiple cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial injury is not fully understood. Numerous studies have shown that the mechanisms of EC injury mainly involve inflammatory reactions, physical stimulation, chemical poisons, concurrency of related diseases, and molecular changes. Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role during the process of endothelial repair after such injuries. What's more, a variety of restorative cells, changes in cytokines and molecules, chemical drugs, certain RNAs, regulation of blood pressure, and physical fitness training protect the endothelial lining by reducing the inducing factors, inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress reactions, and delaying endothelial caducity. Conclusions: ECs are always in the process of being damaged. Several therapeutic targets and drugs were seeked to protect the endothelium and promote repair.
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Emergent Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography with Placement of Biliary Double Stents to Salvage Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography-Induced Stapfer's Type II Perforation p. 2346
Ping Yue, Wen-Bo Meng, Joseph W Leung, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Liang Zhu, Hui Zhang, Hai-Ping Wang, Zheng-Feng Wang, Ke-Xiang Zhu, Long Miao, Wen-Ce Zhou, Xun Li
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Complete Closure of Gastric Defect with Improved Purse-String Suture Technique Using Single-Channel Endoscope p. 2349
Min Lin, Qiang Wang, Feng-Dong Li, Rui Li, Jin Huang
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Association between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Lens Opacity in Senior Population in Hainan Province p. 2352
Kai-Yan Zhang, Qiong-Lei Zhong, Yan Xu, Chuan-Xian Guo, Si-Ying Chen, Yi-Jie Yan, Xiao-Ling Wu, Yun-Suo Gao
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Causes of Severe Visual Impairment and Blindness in Schools for the Blind p. 2354
Hui-Yi Jin, Jiang-Nan He, Jian-Feng Zhu, Shan-Shan Li, Li-Na Lu, Xian-Gui He, Hong-Mei Xu, Xun-Jie Chen, Hai-Dong Zou
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Systemic-Related Factors of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy p. 2357
Yue-Yan Xiao, Wen-Bin Wei, Ya-Xing Wang, Ai-Dong Lu, Shuo-Hua Chen, Lu Song, Shou-Ling Wu
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Effects of Nerve Growth Factor Expression on Perineural Invasion and Worse Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer p. 2360
Ying Long, De-Sheng Yao, You-Sheng Wei, Guang-Teng Wu
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Successful Laparoscopic Management of Heterotopic Pregnancy at 12+2 Weeks of Gestation p. 2364
Yao Xie, Xia Zhao
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Inversion of the Uterus Combined with Endometrial Carcinosarcoma p. 2366
Huan-Huan Zhao, Jian-Xin Cheng, Li Li
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Severe Hyperhomocysteinemia with Two Novel Mutations of c.154T>C and c.457G>A in Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Gene p. 2368
Hong An, Chun-Qiu Fan, Jian-Gang Duan, Yi Ren, Kai Dong, Qian Zhang, Xun-Ming Ji, Xiao-Qin Huang
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Giant Axonal Neuropathy with Unusual Neuroimagings Caused by Compound Heterozygous Mutations in GAN Gene p. 2371
Shuang Cai, Jie Lin, Yi-Qi Liu, Jia-Hong Lu, Chong-Bo Zhao
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B/S Brace as an Alternative Treatment for Ingrown Toenails p. 2373
Fei Miao, Shu Nie, Hong-Wei Wang
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Clinical and Genetic Features of Familial Cold Urticaria: A Report of Three Families p. 2376
Kai Wang, Lin-Feng Li
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A Case Report on Acquired Tufted Angioma with Severe Pain after Healed Herpes Zoster p. 2378
Yu-Tian Cai, Hui Xu, Yuan Guo, Ning-Ning Guo, Yu-Mei Li
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Genomic Disruption of FOXL2 in Blepharophimosis-Ptosis-Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome Type 2: A Novel Deletion-Insertion Compound Mutation p. 2380
Bei-Bei Niu, Ning Tang, Qin Xu, Pei-Wei Chai
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A New Mutation Identified by Whole Exome Sequencing in a Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Newborn p. 2384
Hua Zhang, Li-Ming Yang, Lu Yuan, Xin Tan, Fu-Qing Zhang
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Diffuse Pulmonary Alveolar Hemorrhage Secondary to All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia p. 2386
Chen-Lu Yang, Kai Shen, Jie Huang
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Access to Orphan Drugs is a Challenge for Sustainable Management of Cystinosis in China p. 2388
Xiao-Qiao Li, Xiao-Xia Peng, Chun-Xiu Gong
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A Challenge: Pulmonary Sclerosing Haemangioma Highly accessed article p. 2390
Tong-Tong Li, Xu Yan, Tong Zhou, Zhen-Xiang Yu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.239689  PMID:30147108
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Acute Myocardial Infarction Induced by Anaphylaxis in China: The Kounis Syndrome p. 2392
Nicholas G Kounis, Ioanna Koniari, Emmanouil Chourdakis, George D Soufras, Grigorios Tsigkas, Periklis Davlouros, George Hahalis
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Reply to “Acute Myocardial Infarction Induced by Anaphylaxis in China: The Kounis Syndrome” p. 2394
Rui Tang, Jin-Lu Sun
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