or taking any anti-diabetic medication as determined from the questionnaires.7Participants were considered as dyslipidemia if the lipid test was abnormal or if they were taking lipid-lowering medications.7Lipid-lowering medication included HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statins), fibrates, bile acid sequestrants and nicotinic acid derivatives.6Overweight was defined as a BMI ≥25
kg/m2.Metabolic syndrome was identified when three or more of the following five components were present:8elevated waist circumference: WC ≥90 cm in men, WC ≥80 cm in women; elevated TG: TG ≥150 mg/dl or drug treatment for elevated triglycerides; reduced HDL-C: HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men or <50 mg/dl in women or drug treatment for reduced HDL-C; elevated blood pressure: BP ≥130/85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug treatment in a patient with a history of hypertension; elevated FPG: FPG >110 mg/dl or drug treatment for elevated glucose.
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Kronmal RA, McClelland RL, Detrano R, Shea S, Lima JA, Cushman M, et al. Risk factors for the progression of coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation 2007; 115: 2722-2730.
Nasir K, Budoff MJ, Wong ND, Scheuner M, Herrington D, Arnett DK, et al. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and coronary artery calcification: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation 2007; 116: 619-626.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation 2005; 112: 2735-2752.
Moran A, Gu D, Zhao D, Coxson P, Wang YC, Chen CS, et al. Future cardiovascular disease in China: Markov model and risk factor scenario projections from the coronary heart disease Policy Model-China. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010; 3: 243-252.
Coylewright M, Rice K, Budoff MJ, Blumenthal RS, Greenland P, Kronmal R. Differentiation of severe coronary artery calcification in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2011; 219: 616-622.
Raggi P, Shaw LJ, Berman DS, Callister TQ. Gender-based differences in the prognostic value of coronary calcification. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2004; 13: 273-283.
Taylor AJ, Bindeman J, Feuerstein I, Cao F, Brazaitis M, O’Malley PG. Coronary calcium independently predicts incident premature coronary heart disease over measured cardiovascular risk factors: mean three-year outcomes in the Prospective Army Coronary Calcium (PACC) project. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 807-814.
Further study of risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease group. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a 11-provinces cohort in China. Chin J Prev Med (Chin) 2002; 36: 298-300.
He J, Gu D, Reynolds K, Wu X, Muntner P, Zhao J, et al. Serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and awareness, treatment, and control of hypercholesterolemia in China. Circulation 2004; 110: 405-411.
Chen K, Lindsey JB, Khera A, De Lemos JA, Ayers CR, Goyal A, et al. Independent associations between metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis: observations from the Dallas Heart Study. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2008; 5: 96-101.
Santos RD, Nasir K, Tufail K, Meneghelo RS, Carvalho JA, Blumenthal RS. Metabolic syndrome is associated with coronary artery calcium in asymptomatic white Brazilian men considered low-risk by Framingham risk score. Prev Cardiol 2007; 10: 141-146.
Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults (2007). Chinese guidelines on prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in adults. Chin J Cardio (Chin) 2007; 35: 390-419.
Hou X, Lu J, Weng J, Ji L, Shan Z, Liu J, et al. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey. PLoS One 2013; 8: e57319.
Erbel R, Delaney JA, Lehmann N, McClelland RL, Möhlenkamp S, Kronmal RA, et al. Signs of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in relation to risk factor distribution in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR). Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 2782-2791.