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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 130  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1269-1275

Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome in an Asymptomatic Patient Population: A Prospective Study

Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing 100038, China

Correspondence Address:
Fu-Xian Zhang
Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.206341

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Background: Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is an important cause of deep vein thrombosis, but the incidence of IVCS is still unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of IVCS in an asymptomatic patient population and to evaluate the risk factors in patients with and without IVCS. Methods: From October 2011 to November 2012, a total of 500 patients (228 women and 272 men; mean age of 55.4 ± 14.7 years) with no vascular-related symptoms were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography was performed to evaluate all patients. The degree of venous compression was calculated as the diameter of the common iliac vein at the site of maximal compression divided by the mean diameter of the uncompressed proximal and caudal left common iliac vein (LCIV). We compared the stenosis rate of the common iliac vein in women and men according to age and followed up patients to evaluate outcomes. Results: The mean compression degree of the LCIV was 16% (4%, 36%); 37.8% of patients had a compression degree ≥25% and 9.8% had a compression degree ≥50%. There was a significant difference between men and women in the LCIV compression degree (9% [3%, 30%] vs. 24% [8%, 42%]; U = 4.66, P< 0.01). In addition, the LCIV compression degree among younger women (≤40 years) was significantly different compared with that in older women (>40 years) (42% [31%, 50%] vs. 19% [5%, 39%]; U = 5.14, P< 0.001). Follow-up was completed in 367 patients with a mean follow-up of 39.5 months (range, 6–56 months). The incidence of IVCS in the follow-up period was 1.6%. Stenosis rate and the diameter of the site of maximal compression correlated with the incidence of IVCS. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that the stenosis rate was an independent risk factor of IVCS (Wald χ2 = 8.84, hazard ratio = 1.13, P< 0.001). Conclusions: The incidence of IVCS was low and correlated with the stenosis rate of iliac vein. Preventative therapy may be warranted for common iliac vein compression in patients at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, especially patients with a higher iliac vein compression degree.

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