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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 129  |  Issue : 17  |  Page : 2026-2032

Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 as a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Stage I and II Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer


Department of Thoracic Surgery, Detection Center of Tumor Biology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ke-Lin Sun
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Detection Center of Tumor Biology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 17 Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.189052

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Background: Increased level of serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a member of transforming growth factor-μ superfamily, was found in patients with epithelial tumors. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum level of MIC-1 can be a candidate diagnostic and prognostic indicator for early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A prospective study enrolled 152 patients with Stage I–II NSCLC, who were followed up after surgical resection. Forty-eight patients with benign pulmonary disease (BPD) and 105 healthy controls were also included in the study. Serum MIC-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the association with clinical and prognostic features was analyzed. Results: In patients with NSCLC, serum protein levels of MIC-1 were significantly increased compared with healthy controls and BPD patients (all P< 0.001). A threshold of 1000 pg/ml of MIC-1 was found in patients with early-stage (Stage I and II) NSCLC, with sensitivity and specificity of 70.4% and 99.0%, respectively. The serum levels of MIC-1 were associated with age (P = 0.001), gender (P = 0.030), and T stage (P = 0.022). Serum MIC-1 threshold of 1465 pg/ml was found in patients with poor early outcome, with sensitivity and specificity of 72.2% and 66.1%, respectively. The overall 3-year survival rate of NSCLC patients with high serum levels of MIC-1 (≥1465 pg/ml) was lower than that of NSCLC patients with low serum MIC-1 levels (77.6% vs. 94.8%). Multivariate Cox regression survival analysis showed that a high serum level of MIC-1 was an independent risk factor for reduced overall survival (hazard ratio = 3.37, 95% confidential interval: 1.09–10.42, P= 0.035). Conclusion: The present study suggested that serum MIC-1 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with early-stage NSCLC.


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